The Prophet Muhammed!



Common calligraphic representation of Muhammad’s name

From  Muhammad (whose name means “highly praised”) was born in Meccs in 570 AD.  His father died shortly before his birth, and he lost his mother at the age of six. The young orphan was then raised primarily by his uncle, for whom he worked as a shepherd. At age 9 (some sources say 12), he joined his uncle on a caravan to Syria.     



Chaparral Castle Pictures from Previous Years!

Constantine the Great!

constantine bust

Quick Facts

  • NAME: Constantine I

  • OCCUPATION:  General, Political Leader, Religious Leader, Emperor

  • BIRTH DATE:  c. February 27, 280

  • DEATH DATE:  March 22, 337

  • PLACE OF BIRTH: Niš, Serbia

  • PLACE OF DEATH: Ancyrona, Turkey

  • AKA: Constantine the Great

  • Full Name: Flavius Valerius Constantinus

From  Constantine became the emperor of Rome in 306, and was the most powerful person in his part of the world. His conversion to Christianity had far reaching effects on the common practice of the religion and on all the factions of Christianity that are present today.


Portryal of Constantine’s Basilicas in Contantinople


The Dark Ages!

 life in the middle ages.jpg 2

The Dark Ages

The Dark Ages were a time in history when the population was declining and there was little literature or other arts. It gave way to a more enlightened time. This is a link to a great interactive timeline of those years:

More links:

life in the middle ages

History Channel Video:

Horrible Histories Videos

Horrible Histories:  Rotten Romans!

The Germanic Tribes and the Scottish Picts!

The Germanic Tribes:

From  With the decline of Rome, there was no one to stop the advancement of the warring Germanic tribes. These tribes traveled in search of food, wealth and shelter, and often left devastation behind them.

germanic warriorsgermanic tribal warrior

There were aproximately 16 Germanic Tribes; Alans, Angul(Angels), Aurvandil (Vandals), Burgundus (Burgundians), Cibidus(Cibidi), Dan (Danes), Franks, Gepids, Gothus(Goths), Ingve (Ynglings), Irmin (Irminones), Longobardus (Lombards),  Nór (Norwegians), Normans (partial Germanic peoples), Ostrogoths, Rugians, Saxneat (Saxons), Sciri, Teutoni, Valagothus (Valogoths), and Visigoths.


Horrible Histories Video:

The Scottish Picts:

From :  Many historians have said that the Picts were the ‘painted people’; that they may have decorated and tattooed their faces and bodies with dyes. The Irish called the Picts the ‘Cruithne’. The Romans used ‘Picts’ as a general term that covered many separate tribes.


Scottish Picts fighting Romans


The Byzantine Empire!


The Byzantine Empire ruled most of Eastern and Southern Europe throughout the Middle Ages. Its capital city, Constantinople, was the largest and wealthiest city in Europe during the time. 


 More web sites:

Byzantine timeline

Rome Divides! The Beginning of the End!


The Empire Splits

As the Roman Empire grew it became more and more difficult to manage from the city of Rome. Eventually the Roman leaders decided to split Rome into two empires. One was the Western Roman Empire and was ruled out of the city of Rome. The other was the Eastern Roman Empire and was ruled out of Constantinople (today’s Istanbul in Turkey). The Eastern Roman Empire would become known as Byzantium or the Byzantine Empire.




Vote for the Best and Worst Ancient Roman Game!

Roman Emperor Nero Shows Death Sentence to a Gladiator 1900 Color lithograph

Facts about Gladiators

From :

Fact 1 The first recorded gladiatorial fight was staged in 264AD when three pairs of slaves who were selected to fight at the funeral of a prominent Roman
Fact 2 The word ‘Gladiator’ was derived from Gladius which was the Latin word for sword
Fact 3 Gladiator games were seen as a method to appease the Roman gods and avert Rome from disaster
Fact 4 Gladiatorial combats were first fought in wooden arenas. The first stone built amphitheatre in Ancient Rome was called the Amphitheater of Statilius Taurus was built in 29 BC. The Roman Colosseum was built in 80AD
Fact 5 Nearly 30 types of gladiators have been identified
Fact 6 The role of the Gladiator became big business in the Roman Empire. Political careers could be launched on the back of spectacular games. Large sums of money could be won by gambling on the outcome of gladiator fights
Fact 7 The games organised by Julius Caesar, on the death of his daughter Julia, featured 320 matched pairs
Fact 8 Roman courts were given the authority to sentence criminals to death fighting as gladiators
Fact 9 Slaves, criminals and prisoners of war were forced into the roles of the first gladiators
Fact 10 By the period of the Roman Empire free men started to enrol as gladiators. Some were ex- soldiers, some wanted the adulation and the glory and some needed money to pay their debts. A Free gladiator was called Auctorati
Fact 11 Gladiators were allowed to keep any prizes or gifts they were given during gladiatorial games
Fact 12 Entrance to the gladiator games was free but spectators, between 50,000 – 80,000 were issued with tickets
Fact 13 Trainee gladiators were called Tirones or Tiro
Fact 14 Female Gladiators, some noble and wealthy, appeared in the arena
Fact 15 42 different Roman Emperors witnessed the carnage at the Roman Colosseum
Fact 16 Catervarii was the name given to gladiators when they did not fight in pairs, but when several fought together
Fact 17 Bestiarii (Beast Fighters) were the gladiators who fought wild animals
Fact 18 The Praegenarii were the ‘opening act gladiator’. This type of gladiator only used wooden swords, accompanied to festive music.
Fact 19 Elite types of Gladiators were the Rudiarius who were gladiators who had obtained their freedom but chose to continue fighting in gladiatorial combats
Fact 20 Gladiatorial schools “Ludi Gladiatorium”. The gladiator schools also served as barracks, or in some cases prisons, for gladiators between their fights.
Fact 21 New Gladiators were formed into troupes called ‘Familia gladiatorium’ which were under the overall control of a manager (lanista)
Fact 22 At the end of the day the gladiators who had been killed were dragged through the Porta Libitinensis (Gate of Death) to the Spoliarium where the body was stripped and the weapons and armor given to the dead gladiator’s lanista.
Fact 23 Prospective gladiators (novicius) had to swear an oath (sacramentum gladiatorium) and enter a legal agreement (auctoramentum) agreeing to submit to beating, burning, and death by the sword if they did not perform as required .
Fact 24 Gladiators often had tattoos (stigma, from where the English word stigmatised derives) applied as an identifying mark on the face, legs and hands.
Fact 25 Trained gladiators joined formal associations, called collegia, to ensure that they were provided with proper burials and that compensation was given to their families.
Fact 26 The early enemies of Rome included the Samnites, the Thracians and the Gauls (Gallus) and gladiators were named according to their ethnic roots
Fact 27 Gladiators were always clothed and armed to resemble barbarians with unusual and exotic weapons and their fights depicted famous victories over barbarians and the power of the Roman Empire
Fact 28 One of the most famous gladiators was the Emperor Commodus (177-192 AD) who boasted that he was the victor of a thousand matches. The Roman Emperors Caligula, Titus, Hadrian , Cracalla, Geta and Didius Julianus were all said to have performed in the arena.
Fact 29 The Emperor Honorius, decreed the end of gladiatorial contests in 399 AD
Fact 30 The last known gladiator fight in the city of Rome occurred on January 1, 404 AD.

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Here are descriptions of the games on one page!

The Roman Games!

The Gladiators:





Circus Maximus:

From  In the 6c BCE (about 2,500 years ago!), the ancient Romans built the Circus Maximus in the city of Rome. Basically, the Maximus was a race track. It was designed to race chariots. Women could attend the races. They could sit with men. That was very unusual

Circus Maximus


Chariot Races:

chariot races rome